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kaletra

Generic Kaletra

Brand(s): Lopimune
Manufacturer: Cipla Limited
Dosage: 200mg + 50mg
Package:
$ 7.00 Per Pill
$ 419.95
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Generic Kaletra is a combined antiviral drug. It contains lopinavir and ritonavir. Lopinavir is an inhibitor of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 protease of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It provides the antiviral activity of this combination. The suppression of HIV proteases inhibits the synthesis of viral proteins and prevents the cleavage of the gag-pol polypeptide, which contributes to the formation of the inactive virus. Ritonavir inhibits CYP3A4 isoenzyme mediated metabolism of lopinavir in the liver. It leads to an increase in the concentration of lopinavir in blood plasma. Ritonavir also belongs to an HIV protease inhibitor.

What is Generic Kaletra?

Generic Kaletra cotains two substances: lopinavir and ritonavir. It is applied to prevent and treat HIV in adults and children. At the current moment, this medicine is used in clinical trials to treat coronavirus (Covid-19).

How should I take this mdicine?

It is recommended to take generic Kaletra orally, regardless of meal. Adults should take 2 tablets 2 times a day, or 4 tablets twice a day. In any case, it is important to consult a doctor about the dosage and treatment regimen because the dosage regimen is individual and depends on the results of laboratory tests, especially when treating patients under 12 years old.

What should I tell my doctor before taking this medicine?

Your doctor should know about diagnosis or health conditions you have:

  • hypersensitivity to lopinavir, ritonavir or its excipients;
  • severe liver failure;
  • the simultaneous use of drugs that clearance is significantly dependent on metabolism through the CYP3A isoenzyme. Such drugs include: astemizole, blonanserin, terfenadine, midazolam, triazolam, cisapride, pimozide, salmeterol, sildenafil, vardenafil, voriconazole, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (lovastatin, simvastatin), fosamprenavir, fusidic acid, amiodarone.
  • simultaneous use with St. John's wort preparations, boceprevir.
  • the simultaneous use of a standard Kaletra dose with rifampicin.
  • the simultaneous use of Kaletra and tipranavir with a low dose of ritonavir.
  • children's age up to 3 years.
  • the use of generic Kaletra once a day in combination with carbamazepine, phenobarbital or phenytoin.
  • the use of the drug Kaletra once a day in combination with the drugs efavirenz, nevirapine, amprenavir or nelfinavir.

What are possible side effects of this medicine?

  • Immune system: hypersensitivity reactions, incl. urticaria and angioedema; immunity restoration syndrome.
  • Digestive system: diarrhea, nausea; vomiting, abdominal pain (in the upper and lower sections), gastroenteritis, colitis, dyspepsia, pancreatitis, gastroesophageal reflux, hemorrhoids, flatulence, bloating, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, cholangitis, liver steatosis; constipation, stomatitis, ulcers of the oral mucosa, duodenitis, gastritis, gastrointestinal bleeding (including rectal bleeding), dry mouth, ulcers of the stomach and intestines, fecal incontinence.
  • Nervous system: headache, migraine, insomnia, neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, dizziness, anxiety; Agevzia, convulsions, tremors, cerebrovascular disorders, sleep disturbances, decreased libido.
  • Cardiovascular system: arterial hypertension; atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, AV block, tricuspid valve insufficiency, deep vein thrombosis; frequency unknown - increased PR interval.
  • Skin and subcutaneous fat: rash (including maculopapular), dermatitis, eczema, seborrhea, increased sweating at night, itching; alopecia, capillary, vasculitis; lipodystrophy and redistribution of subcutaneous fat.
  • Musculoskeletal system: musculoskeletal pain (including arthralgia and back pain), myalgia, muscle weakness, muscle spasms; rhabdomyolysis, osteonecrosis.
  • Metabolism and endocrine system: hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, weight loss, decreased appetite, diabetes mellitus; weight gain, lactic acidosis, increased appetite, male hypogonadism; insulin resistance.
  • Urinary system: renal failure; hematuria, nephritis.
  • Reproductive system: erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea, menorrhagia.
  • Hemopoietic system: anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, lymphadenopathy.
  • Sensory organs: vestibular dizziness, tinnitus, visual impairment.
  • Infections: upper respiratory tract infections; lower respiratory tract infections, infections of the skin and subcutaneous fat, including cellulitis, folliculitis, furunculosis.
  • General reactions: weakness, asthenia.

What are possible interactions of this medicine?

Lopinavir/ritonavir in vitro and in vivo is an inhibitor of the CYP3A isoenzyme. The simultaneous use of lopinavir/ritonavir and drugs mainly metabolized by the CYP3A isoenzyme (for example, dihydropyridine blockers of “slow” calcium channels, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, immunosuppressants and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE-5)) can lead to an increase in plasma concentrations drugs whose therapeutic or side effects may increase or last.

In preparations that are actively metabolized by the CYP3A isoenzyme and have a high presystem metabolism, when taken simultaneously with lopinavir/ritonavir, there is a significant increase in AUC (more than 3-fold).

Lopinavir/ritonavir is metabolized by the CYP3A isoenzyme. The simultaneous use of lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) and drugs that induce the CYP3A isoenzyme can reduce plasma concentrations of lopinavir and reduce its therapeutic effect, although these changes were not observed with the simultaneous use of ketoconazole.

The simultaneous use of lopinavir and ritonavir and other drugs that inhibit the CYP3A isoenzyme may increase plasma concentrations of lopinavir.

Can I overdose when using this medicine?

The clinical experience of acute overdose when taking lopinavir/ritonavir in humans is currently limited. There is no specific antidote. Treatment consists of measures aimed at maintaining the body's life support, including monitoring vital systems and the patient's clinical condition. If necessary, unabsorbed drugs are removed by gastric lavage, for which purpose administration of activated carbon may be useful. Since lopinavir/ritonavir binds to a high degree to plasma proteins, the use of dialysis is ineffective.

aralen

Generic Aralen

Brand(s): Lariago
Manufacturer: Ipca Laboratories
Dosage:
Package:
$ 1.24 Per Pill
$ 37.18
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$ 1.13 Per Pill
$ 67.85
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$ 1.02 Per Pill
$ 92.02
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$ 0.91 Per Pill
$ 109.68
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$ 0.81 Per Pill
$ 145.01
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$ 0.70 Per Pill
$ 250.99
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$ 1.04 Per Pill
$ 31.20
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$ 0.94 Per Pill
$ 56.40
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$ 0.71 Per Pill
$ 63.60
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$ 0.59 Per Pill
$ 70.80
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$ 0.47 Per Pill
$ 85.20
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$ 0.46 Per Pill
$ 165.60
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Aralen is an antiprotozoal with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory propertie. It causes the death of asexual erythrocyte forms of all types of plasmodia. It has a gametocidal effect, with the exception of Plasmodium falciparum. It contains Chloroquine used as an experimental coronavirus treatment option.

What is Generic Aralen?

Aralen belongs to an antiprotozoal group (antimalaria drug). It also has immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. It contributes to the death of asexual erythrocyte forms of all types of plasmodia.

In what cases to take this medicine?

  • Malaria (prevention and treatment of all types);
  • Extraintestinal amoebiasis;
  • Amoebic liver abscess;
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (chronic and subacute forms);
  • Rheumatoid arthritis;
  • Scleroderma;
  • Photodermatosis.

What should I tell a healthcare professional about?

  • Hypersensitivity;
  • Hepatic and/or renal failure;
  • Inhibition of bone marrow hematopoiesis;
  • Severe rhythm disturbances;
  • Psoriatic arthritis;
  • Neutropenia;
  • Porphyrinuria;
  • Pregnancy;
  • Lactation.

How should I take this medicine?

  • The prevention of malaria - 0.5 g in the first week 2 times, then 1 time always on the same day of the week.
  • Malaria treatment is carried out according to the following scheme: 1 g once 1 day, after 6-8 hours - 0.5 g, on the 2nd and 3rd day of treatment - 0.75 g daily in one dose.
  • Amoebiasis: 0.5 g 3 times a day for 7 days, then 0.25 g 3 times a day for another 7 days, then 0.75 g 2 times a week for 2-6 months.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis - 0.25 g 2 times a day for 7 days, then - 0.25 g daily for 12 months.
  • SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus) - daily, 0.25–0.5 g.
  • Photodermatosis, 0.25 g daily for a week, then 0.5–0.75 g weekly.

What side effects are caused by Aralen?

  • Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, gastralgia.
  • Nervous system: dizziness, headache, sleep disturbances, psychoses, epileptic seizures.
  • Cardiovascular system: myocardial damage with changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG), lowering blood pressure.
  • Sensory organs: damage to the retina, impaired vision, ringing in the ears.
  • Allergic reactions: dermatitis, photosensitivity.
  • Other: myalgia, leukopenia, discoloration of the skin and hair.

Can I overdose?

Symptoms: vomiting, impaired consciousness, impaired vision, convulsions, collapse, respiratory depression (fatal case).

Treatment: vomiting, gastric lavage, ingestion of activated charcoal in a dose 5 times the expected dose of chloroquine; peritoneal dialysis, plasmapheresis.

What are possible interactions of Aralen?

  • Co-administration with phenylbutazone, gold preparations, penicillamine, cytostatics, levamisole increases the likelihood of bone marrow aplasia and skin lesions.
  • Antacids disrupt absorption, cimetidine increases the concentration of Aralen in the blood.
  • The combination with other antimalarial drugs may be accompanied by an antagonistic effect.
  • When combined with glucocorticosteroids, the risk of developing myopathy and cardiomyopathy increases;
  • With monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOs), the risk of developing neurotoxicity increases;
  • With ethanol, hepatotoxicity is diagnosed;
  • Glycoside intoxication increases with cardiac glycosides.

Coronavirus – Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment

coronavirusThe course of coronavirus is different. It can be either asymptomatic, a mild cold or in severe form with a risk of death. The main symptoms are:

  • rhinitis, manifested by nasal congestion;
  • difficulty in nasal breathing;
  • sneezing;
  • watery nosal secretion, which then become mucous.

In some cases, coronavirus infection of the lower respiratory tract is complicated with the development of pneumonia, accompanied by cough, chest pain during breathing, difficulty breathing.

Coronavirus symptoms are characteristic of other acute respiratory viral infections such as: sore throat when swallowing, general weakness, moderate headache, fever.

Damage to the gastrointestinal tract can proceed as an acute gastroenteritis with nausea and diarrhea.

The immediate death, in most cases, was caused by progressive acute respiratory failure. The patient suffocates and dies if he is not connected to the ventilator on time.

What are preventive measures for Covid-19 (Coronavirus infection)?

Due to the unfavorable situation associated with the new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), in order to prevent the occurrence and further spread of the infection, the following precautions are recommended:

  • when planning trips, the epidemiological situation in this location should be clarified;
  • do not visit markets where animals, seafood are sold;
  • do not visit zoos, cultural events involving animals;
  • use respiratory protective masks;
  • change the mask in a timely manner as soon as it becomes wet;
  • drink only bottled water;
  • eat only thermally processed food;
  • better to refrain from exotic and uncharacteristic for the usual diet meals;
  • refuse from eating outside;
  • wash hands after visiting crowded places and before meal;
  • at the first signs of the disease, seek medical help, do not allow self-medication.

Possible Coronavirus treatment

Aralen (Chloroquine) is a drug widely used for the prevention and treatment of malaria (500 mg for adults, twice a day), as well as ribavirin in combination with interferon or lopinavir/ritonavir. Such a combination helps to effectively fight coronavirus.

However, Chinese doctors warn that such treatment regimens are aimed only at eliminating the general symptoms of the disease. But there is no specific therapy for Covid-19 yet.

Lopinavir, commonly prescribed for treating HIV patients, and the antiviral drug remdesivir, originally produced to treat Ebola and Marburg virus, were also used to treat coronavirus infection in China.